Tinea capitis and tinea barbae are dermatophytes which are limited to the hair and chin areas.

Cause

Trichophyton is one of three types of fungi which make dermatophyte. Most frequent types are Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton verrucosum, and Trichophyton violaceum.

The following factors have impact on the infection occurrence, i.e. dermatophyte spreading: environment factors (heat, humidity, closed rubber shoes, specific professions, etc.), factors of causative agents (quantity of vital spores in pathogen material, virulence, duration of direct contact with the infected material), factors of the host (immunology and non-immunology: epidermal integrity, speed of basal cell proliferation, saturated fatty acids on skin surface, age, gender, genetic and racial factors, endocrine and metabolic factors, joint bacterial infections).

Diseases caused by dermatophyte are contagious. The infection is transmitted both directly and indirectly (by touching contagious items). It is interesting to note that genetically connected individuals suffer from dermatophyte more often than a wife and husband who have more frequent direct contact.

Clinical presentation

At surface forms of the disease, seats are numerous and are of the size of a coin or even bigger. They are covered in small crusts and grayish dandruff. Hairs are unevenly broken, dull and colorless. However, there is healthy hair inside the diseases seat. These changes may also occur on male chin (Tinea barbae).
As for forms which cover deeper layers, clinical presentation is rather different: there are bubbles filled with exudate matter (pus) which may cause abscess. Hair is falling off, puss and sanies are released to the pressure, which results in the occurrence of crusts. These areas are painful to the touch and regional inflammation of lymph structures is quite obvious. These changes can also occur on male chin (Kerion barbae).

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is set up based on epidemiology, medical history, clinical presentation and dermoscopy examination.

Treatment

Treatment implies a set of antifungal products. If the infection does not react to the local medications, per os treatment is applied.

 

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