Anagen effluvium is excessive shedding of scalp hair, and sometimes leads to total hair loss.

Normal human hair can be classified based on the three stages of hair growth: anagen, catagen and telogen. Anagen is active hair growth phase, during which matrix cells show intensive mitotic activity. As average scalp has 100 000 hairs, approximately 85-90% of hairs are in growth phase at any moment. Therefore, anagen effluvium affects a large percentage of scalp hair.
Anagen effluvium occurs in case a specific insult disturbs mitotic or metabolic activity of hair follicle. Anagen effluvium starts extremely rapidly. At some patients, hair falls off in bunches in the first two weeks.

Cytostatic and various toxins inhibit rapid growth and cell multiplication, as well as proliferation of hair cells, which results in hair production suspension. The effects of cytostatic medications are so rapid and potent that hair follicles do not have sufficient time to initiate telogen phase as they do in telogen effluvium which is a common response to average negative external effects to hair cycle.

Hair falls off very quickly and has dystrophic appearance. Hair loss usually starts 7-14 days after only one chemotherapy dose and most obvious clinical manifestations after 1-2 months. The degree of hair loss at patients who are under cytostatic treatment is rather individual. Some patients suffer from the combination of telogen and anagen effluvium and limited hair loss. Anagen effluvium is more serious at patients who are treated by a combination of cytostatic medications than at patients who are treated by only one cytostatic. Hair loss degree also depends on medication dosage.

Other medications which may cause anagen effluvium are bismuth, cyclosporine. Exposure to chemicals, such as thallium or arsenic, may also cause anagen effluvium.
Anagen effluvium occurs at patients with alopecia areata as a result of inflammation insult on hair follicle matrix.

 

anageni eflumijum

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